PPE Standards

Welcome to the PPE Standards Section. Look to this section to find out how these different standards affect PPE use, care and maintenance. Start by finding out who the different standard-making organizations are and then move on to learn more about these important documents designed to keep you safe on the job. Additional Resources
Thermal Protective Performance Test Guidance
Conductive, Compressive Heat Resistance Test Guidance
NFPA Standards Procedure Guidance

NFPA 1500, 2007 Edition:

Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program

This document addresses the occupational safety in the working environment of the fire service as well as safety in the proper use of tools, equipment, vehicles, protective clothing, and breathing apparatus. Career, volunteer, private and military departments are included in the document. This is the standard that dictates the overlap requirements between the protective coats and trousers:

There shall be at least a 2" overlap of layers of the coat and trousers so there is no gaping of the total thermal protection when the garments are worn. The minimum overlap shall be determined by measuring the garments on the wearer, without SCBA, in both of the following positions:
Position A. Standing, hands together reaching overhead as high as possible.
Position B. Standing, hands together reaching overhead, with body bent forward, to the side, and to the back as much as possible.

NFPA 1851, 2008 Edition:

Standard on Selection, Care, and Maintenance of Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting, 2008 Edition

NFPA 1851 is a user document, originally published in February of 2001 and revised in June of 2008. This Standard deals with fire departments’ selection and care of Personal Protective Equipment, and contains chapters on administration, definitions, program, selection, inspection, cleaning and decontamination, repair, storage, retirement, verification and test procedures.

NFPA 1951, 2007 Edition:

Standard on Protective Ensembles for Technical Rescue Incidents, 2007 Edition

The 2001 edition of NFPA 1951 was titled Standard on Protective Ensemble for USAR Operations. In the 2007 edition the title was changed to the above; however, this standard still deals with technical rescue incidents in urban and other non-wilderness locations that require special equipment. NFPA 1951 sets forth requirements for the protective clothing and equipment needs of emergency responders engaged in technical rescue activities. The 2007 edition includes three levels of protection: a utility garment, a rescue garment, and a CBRN garment. The big difference in the categories is that a utility garment has a THL (total heat loss) requirement of 650 w/m² and does not require a moisture barrier, which means there is no Whole Garment Integrity Test (i.e. shower test). Both the rescue garment and the CBRN garment are required to undergo the Whole Garment Integrity test, which necessitates a moisture barrier. The Rescue garment has a THL requirement of 450w/m², and the CBRN garment requires a THL of 250 w/m² . As with other CBRN options, there are additional, very stringent test requirements for the CBRN garment.

NFPA 1971, 2007 Edition:

Standard on Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting, 2007 Edition

This standard sets the minimum requirements for design, performance, testing, and certification of the elements of the ensemble for body protection in structural firefighting – coats, trousers, one-piece suits, hoods, helmets, gloves, and footwear. As with all NFPA Standards, the 2007 Edition of NFPA 1971 replaced the 2000 edition, and all previous editions. The 2007 edition had an effective date of August 2006 and unlike previous editions, the 2007 edition of NFPA 1971 incorporated design and performance requirements for proximity protective ensemble elements as well as for structural protective ensemble elements. Additionally, the 2007 Edition incorporated design and performance requirements for optional CBRN requirements. This means that departments who wish to specify CBRN protection will be able to do so, although will not be required to do so. Manufacturers who label a garment as providing CBRN protection will be required to test against the specific requirements set forth in the standard. In other words, the CBRN protection is optional, but if you are labeling to that option the test requirements for doing so are mandatory and must also be third party certified.

NFPA 1975, 2004 Edition:

Station/Work Uniforms for Fire and Emergency Services

NFPA 1975 specifies minimum requirements for the design, performance, testing, and certification of station/work uniforms that are non-primary protective garments, so that they will not cause or contribute to burn injury severity.

NFPA 1977, 2005 Edition:

Standard on Protective Clothing and Equipment for Wildland Fire Fighting

NFPA 1977 specifies requirements for the design, performance, testing, and certification of the items of protective clothing for protection from the hazards of wildland fire fighting operations. Provisions address criteria for garments including shirts, jackets, cold weather outerwear, and pants; and for helmets, shrouds, goggles, gloves, footwear, chainsaw leg protectors, and load-carrying equipment.

NFPA 1991, 2005 Edition:

Standard on Vapor-Protective Ensembles for Hazardous Materials Emergencies

The 2005 NFPA 1991 provides requirements for the highest level of protection for emergency responders to hazardous materials incidents where an unknown threat, a vapor threat, or a chemical or biological terrorism WMD threat is present or expected. Criteria address design, performance, certification, and documentation requirements.

NFPA 1992, 2005 Edition:

Standard on Liquid Splash-Protective Clothing for Hazardous Materials Emergencies

NFPA 1992 provides requirements for protection for emergency responders to hazardous materials incidents where liquid or liquid splash threats are present or expected.

NFPA 1994, 2007 Edition:

Standard on Protective Ensembles for First Responders to CBRN Terrorism Incidents

NFPA 1994 establishes the minimum requirements for the design, performance, testing, documentation, and certification of protective ensembles and ensemble elements for protection of emergency first responder personnel from chemicals, biological agents, and radiological particulate (CBRN) terrorism agents.

NFPA 1999, 2008 Edition:

Standard on Protective Clothing for Emergency Medical Operations (EMS)

NFPA 1999: Protective Clothing for Emergency Medical Operations specifies minimum documentation, design, performance, testing, and certification requirements for new-single use and new multiple-use emergency medical operations protective clothing used by emergency medical responders prior to arrival at medical care facilities, and used by medical first receivers at medical care facilities during emergency medical operations.


The Canadian General Standards


Board standard for Firefighters’ Protective Clothing for Protection Against Heat and Flame, was last revised in 2001

  • The moisture Barrier is subject to a diffusion resistance test, with no THL values required.
  • The NFPA 1971 Shower test is not required to validate design.
  • The method specified for Flame resistance testing is different.
  • Tear Strength testing is performed after exposure to UV.
Certification is currently only required in the Province of Ontario.

OSHA Rule 29 CFR 1910.1030 :

Final rule on Protecting Health Care Workers from Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens "When there is occupational exposure, the employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, appropriate personal protective equipment.

"Personal protective equipment will be considered 'appropriate' only if it does not permit blood or other potentially infectious materials to pass through to or reach the employee’s work clothes, street clothes, undergarments, skin, eyes or other mucous membranes under normal conditions of use and for the duration of time which the protective equipment will be used."